Since the discovery of the presence of bacteria in the oral cavity in the 18th Century by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, advances in molecular biology and sequencing techniques have made it possible to further understanding of the oral microbiota and its role in human health. More than anywhere else in the human body, this microbiota has to adapt to extreme, changing conditions induced by food, beverages and oral hygiene practices.
More than 700 bacterial species shared by most individuals have been counted. Among the genera the most highly represented are StreptococcusG, VeillonellaG and GranulicatellaG, the distribution of which varies according to location in the oral cavity. Like the gut microbiota, a diverse oral microbiota is associated with good health. This diversity ensures the maintenance of bacterial metabolic functions favourable to the host and minimizes the establishment of pathogens by occupying ecological niches and by contributing to the degradation of virulence factors.
Imbalance in the oral microbiota has been associated with 'local' diseases such as caries, periodontal diseases responsible for tooth loss and oral cancers. Beyond that, perhaps through mechanisms bringing bacterial translocation and changes in tissue microbiota into play, oral dysbiosis is related to the onset of cardiovascular diseases, including especially, myocardial infarction or even metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. A new microbiota to uncover or discover all over again in this new issue.