Issue 16 march 2020 Special Report 5 year Special Edition

Numéro 16 - 5 year Special Edition
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Bäckhed in 20041 and later Gordon in 20062 revealed the connection between the gut microbiota and obesity. In 2007, Amar and Cani3 demonstrated a causal link between the translocation of bacterial fragments in tissues and diabetes. Since these first publications, subsequent research has described the diversity of the microbiotas we host and confirmed the presence of microbiotas in our tissues, and the role of bacterial translocation on our health is now better understood. In the field of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, the role of intestinal immunity in interaction with the gut microbiota has been revealed for both diabetes and hypertension, paving the way for an aetiological treatment for what Reaven, for want of a better name, called syndrome X4 in 1998. In the field of cancer, the role of the gut microbiota in the tolerance and efficacy of immunotherapy has been reported, opening up new possibilities for precision medicine5. The role of tumour tissue dysbiosis in the prognosis of cancers like pancreatic cancer has also been established6. The physiopathological mechanism of this relationship has now been identified, paving the way for innovative therapies targeting the interaction between the host’s immunity and the bacteria present in the tumour. In a few short years, we have therefore expanded our very narrow and sterile view of the human body to embrace a new paradigm where the dialogue established from birth between our microbiota and our cells has a major influence on our health. Understanding and modulating this dialogue to our advantage is therefore set to be a major challenge for scientific research in the decade to come.

Good reading and good navigation!

 

1. Bäckhed F, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad
Sci USA. 2004;101:15718-23
2. Turnbaugh PJ, et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiota with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature.
2006;444:1027-31.
3. Cani PD, et al. Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2007;56:1761-72.
4. Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37:1595-607.
5. Routy B, et al. Gut microbiota influences efficacy of PD-1-based immunotherapy against epithelial tumors.
Science. 2018;359:91-7.
6. Riquelme E, et al. Tumor Microbiota Diversity and Composition Influence Pancreatic Cancer Outcomes. Cell.
2019;178:795-806.

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Table of contents

Special Report

  • Gut microbiota analysis: the future of personalised medicine?Philippe Gérard
  • Gut microbiota and gastrointestinal disorders: from prevention to treatmentStanislas Bruley des Varannes
  • The microbiota: a link between cardiovascular and metabolic diseasesJacques Amar
  • Microbiota and gynaecology: an increasingly vast horizon with as yet undefined solutionsJean-Marc Bohbot
  • The emergence of the newborn gut microbiota: the lessons of the last five yearsAlexis Mosca
  • Microbiota and immune dysfunction diseases: causes or consequences?Cyrille Hoarau
  • Lung microbiota, out of the shadowsGeneviève Héry-Arnaud
  • Microbiota and neuroscience: the importance of the gut-brain axisPatrick Vermersch
  • Taxonomy of the microbiota: the impact of innovative technologiesBruno Pot

The Microbiota Chronicle

  • Pull-out poster: 15 Revues des Microbiotes in summary; Gloss ary

In Brief

  • Five years of Zoom in summary

Microbioto News

  • Interesting abstracts

Focus

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